One of the most hotly contested procedures during the Apollo missions was the how NASA dealt with the issue of the Van Allen belts, the naturally occurring belts of radiation that surround the earth, both on the journey to the moon and returning from it.
To some this just proves the point that NASA never went to the moon because they contest that if the crew went through the Van Allen belts.
They would have received a lethal dose of radiation and died during or shortly afterwards but as we know that didn’t happen, so how did they achieve this.
Mention word “radiation” and most people will think of X-rays and the atom bomb, Hiroshima, Chernobyl and therefore associate it with bad things.
The main types of ionising particles in the Van Allen belts are high energy protons and electrons, the protons can be stopped by light metals such as the aluminium skin of the craft and the epoxy resin heatshield.
Electrons also known as Beta particles can penetrate several inches into a living tissue but because they are very small they tend don’t do much damage.