We live our lives knowing that many satellites orbit our planet everyday, and that they are helping us in several ways. You might be surprised to know that there are almost 4,900 satellites orbiting the earth. The most obvious questions that come to mind are: Why are these satellites in totally different orbits? How does a satellite carry out all of its functions? And, what are the components inside them, which help them to accomplish all of their allotted tasks? Let’s explore the answers to all these questions in detail.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet and many other applications.
Many communications satellites are in geostationary orbit 35,900 km above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky; therefore the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track the satellite.
Most satellites have common characteristics, for example, need power. It is common to use solar panels, also have antennas that allow the reception and transmission of data. Platforms that ensure normal satellites work in orbit: A power supply system consisting of an energy source, onboard control complex that provides management of service systems and payload, system of orientation, stabilisation and motion control, a thermal control system thatensures the thermal regime of the onboard equipment, propulsion systems for correcting the height of the satellite’s orbit and its orientation, a body or a bus that provides accommodation for all equipment.